The overall OS4ES aim is to provide an Open System for Energy Services (hence OS4ES) for Smart Grid actors (DSOs, BRPs, Retailers etc. acting as aggregators) to enable dynamic and automated integration of millions of DERs, such as a large amount of electrical vehicles expected in the coming years, private or commercial PV plants, small, medium size and huge wind power plants as well as privately and commercially owned CHPs, into the electrical network. Such an open system for energy services with plug & play interfaces based on international standards will provide Smart Grid actors with an ideal means of monitoring and controlling the enormously high numbers of DERs on-the-fly that otherwise would need to be addressed “manually” one by one in a very ineffective and time-consuming way.
The detailed objectives of OS4ES also visualized in Figures 1 and 2 are as follows:
- Deliver a Reference Architecture of an Open System for Energy Services (OS4ES), enabling DERs to be dynamically assigned and interconnected to Energy Management Applications of DSOs and other BRPs.
- Operationalise this Reference Architecture through the realization of a software reference
Implementation that contains all the necessary building blocks, is compliant with existing standards, and that demonstrably enables DSOs and DERs to dynamically work together in an integrated way.
- Test this OS4ES system under realistic conditions in lab and field tests for a number of mission-critical DSO and BRP service business use-case scenarios (detailed later in this Section).
- Make final results of the OS4ES service system available in Open Source format for wide take-up and disseminate key results via an OS4ES stakeholder Industrial User Group.
- Prepare associated standardisation efforts. Open Standards are crucial for the success of any System for Energy Management Applications. We will bring API for Energy Management Applications, DER Distributed System Registry Interface, and DER communication interface into existing standardisation activities from the Standardisation Bodies (e.g. TC57 WG17). In case there is not an existing standardisation activity we will create NWIP (New Work Items Proposals) for it.
Figure 2 depicts the high-level architecture of the OS4ES open service system, to support main actors in a smart grid in establishing an easier and more open service schema. Different DERs in a smart grid, linked under specific contracts with smart grid actors (DSOs, Retailers, BRPs, etc.) will be able to share data and services through OS4ES. More specifically, smart grid actors will be given the opportunity, through OS4ES, to publish DERs belonging to their control portfolios into the OS4ES registry and semantically enhance them in order to advertise and highlight their capabilities (availability, geographic location, agreements for participation in specific programmes, etc.), in order to facilitate optimal DER discovery and VPP formulation and allow for successful provisioning and acquisition of specific and dedicated services from DERs.
Within this framework, different smart grid actors will be able to access and interface OS4ES, obtaining the business role of an aggregator, not only in order to analyse (monitoring, capacity calculation) in real-time the data from their DER portfolios, but also to implement specific control strategies over appropriate DER clusters (discovered through the interaction between actors’ applications and OS4ES) and exploit the capabilities required from such DER clusters, in an optimized manner, in terms of network operation and market participation (performing, also, prioritization among “conflicting” applications and re-optimization, in case, specific services are overridden).
A key feature of OS4ES will be the distributed registry system which will allow for publishing, advertising and discovery of DERs and will incorporate all the security functions required, such as authentication of users and DERs, authorization of users, integrity control, non-repudiation, confidentiality and availability. Moreover, OS4ES will adopt secure and reliable protocols - both for communication and data management - to ensure the trustworthiness of the approach and the correct treatment of private information.
Hence, OS4ES will act as gateway to different DERs (demand and supply) within a smart grid, allowing smart grid actors/aggregators to deploy their applications and, through them, to commission and associate with appropriate and necessary services (DER clusters). This association/connection will be managed in realtime by the project middleware, which will facilitate message control, transformation, mapping and routing (unicasting, multicasting, broadcasting, etc.) between services (Message-Oriented Middleware, MOM). The middleware will also perform ontology management and retain persistent data and common data (e.g. historical data, meteorological data), while interacting with the OS4ES registry (providing information about DER status and availability) and the Application Layer (updates on the services’ status).